Organization : Central Election Commission
Facility : Election Types
Country : Taiwan
Website : cec.gov.tw/english/cms/eTypes
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Election Types :
I. Election Types :
(1) Elections in Taiwan can be classified into 11 categories. All of the elected officials serve four year terms.
Related : Voter Registration Central Election Commission Taiwan : www.electionin.org/1156.html
** The Presidential, Vice Presidential Election and the Legislator Election are held at the central level.
** Elections of Mayors, Municipal Councilors, County Magistrates (“City Mayors”), County (City) Councilors, Township Chiefs, Township Councilors, Chief of indigenous districts in municipalities, Councilors of indigenous districts in municipalities, and Chiefs of village (borough), are held at the local level.
(2) At present, all the elections of local level are held at the same time. The elections of public officials of the central and local levels are organized at a two-year interval.
II. Central Elections for Public Office :
(1) Presidential and Vice Presidential Election :
1. Candidacy :
Any individual who has lived in Taiwan for more than six consecutive months, with domicile in the country for more than 15 years, and has reached the age of 40, is eligible to register as a candidate for president or vice president by means of the following
a. Nomination by a political party :
Any political party that has garnered 5% of the vote in the most recent national elections for central government posts – president, vice president or legislator – is eligible to nominate candidates.
b.Citizen Petition :
The number of signees on the petition must account for at least 1.5% of the number of eligible voters during the most recent Legislator Election.
2. Determining Results :
Candidates for president and vice president who receive the most votes shall be elected. If there is only one pair of candidates on the ballot, their vote total must exceed 20% of eligible voters in order to be elected.
(2) Legislator Elections :
1.The Legislative Yuan consists of 113 members.
** 73 are elected from single-member electoral districts in special municipalities, counties and cities.
** Six are Indigenous (three from highland areas and three from lowland areas).
** The remaining 34 seats are legislator-at-large seats proportionally allocated to political parties. Voters select political parties for these seats, and members of the Legislative Yuan will be chosen in accordance with candidate lists provided by political parties.
2. Candidacy :
1.Electoral district and Indigene candidates can freely register to compete in the election. Parties established in accordance with the law are eligible to nominate candidates.
2. Legislator-at-large candidates shall be registered by political parties, which must meet one of the following requirements :
a. The votes received in the most recent presidential and vice presidential election by its candidates exceeded 2% of the total.
b. The votes received in the three most recent elections for legislators-at-large of the Legislative Yuan exceeded 2% of the total.
c. There are five or more active members in the Legislative Yuan.
d. Ten or more candidates were nominated for the electoral district and Indigene seats in the Legislative Yuan.
3. Determining election results :
1. Electoral district legislator elections adopt a single-member district plurality mechanism, whereby the candidate with the most votes is elected (FPTP).
2. A single non-transferable vote system is adopted for lowland and highland Indigene Legislator elections. The three candidates with the most number of votes are elected.
3. Only political parties that receive 5% or more votes in legislator-at-large elections for the Legislative Yuan qualify to occupy the available seats, with the number of seats based on percentage of votes.
Legislators-at-large are chosen in accordance with candidate lists provided by these political parties. Women must fill at least half of the seats won by each party.
III. Local Elections for Public Office :
(1)In terms of local elections for public office – including those for administrative heads and councilors – candidates may register freely, while political parties are also allowed to nominate candidates.
(2)Local elections for councilors adopt a multi-member district system. The candidates with the highest number of votes are elected. In each election district, one of every four elected candidates should be female.
IV. Voter Eligibility :
At present, among Taiwan’s 23 million population, around 18 million people are eligible voters, accounting for three quarters of the total population. Those who meet the following requirements are eligible to vote.
(1)Citizens of the Republic of China aged 20 or above
(2)Citizens who have resided in the country for 6 consecutive months or longer are eligible to vote in presidential elections; citizens who have resided in their respective constituencies for 4 months or longer are eligible to vote in elections for public offices.
(3)Those who have not been declared incompetent.